B.A.N.K.™ has been field-tested with proven results for more than 15 years, and now experts have scientifically proven the validity of the B.A.N.K. Methodology with formal research through two independent studies.

The B.A.N.K.™ Buying Personality Assessment is a quick, reliable, and valid measure of buying personality that predicts buying behavior and increases your probability of closing the sale. – DR. RYAN T. HOWELL, PHD SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY


This study is being conducted by Dr. Ryan T. Howell is an Associate Professor of Psychology at San Francisco State University and a co-founder of Beyond the Purchase. The goal of the present research proposal is to develop and validate the B.A.N.K.™ assessment. Based on the data collected to date (previous Studies 1 and 2) it is expected that the structure of the B.A.N.K.™ assessment is:

  1. A four-factor solution, with four internally consistent and largely orthogonal scales (B-A-N-K)
  2. It is temporally consistent and shows trait-like reliability
  3. Demonstrates both predictive validity of respondent self-perceptions as well as
  4. Convergent (e.g., A’s and N’s being more emotional buyers while B’s and K’s are more logical buyers) and discriminate validity with other personality assessment instruments (e.g., the Big Five Inventory, material values, consumer habits)
  5. Has utility in predicting buying decisions and motivations as well as money management.


Dr. Ryan T. Howell is an Associate Professor of Psychology at San Francisco State University and a co-founder of Beyond the Purchase. He received his Ph.D. in Personality Psychology from the University of California, Riverside (2005). He is the director of The Personality and Well-Being Lab at SFSU where their primary aim is to communicate to scientists and society about how development, personality, motivation, values, beliefs, forecasts, and community interact with a person's economic conditions and financial decision-making to influence experienced quality of life, from suffering to flourishing.

For example, in Howell's meta-analysis (2008) his findings show that for all people, especially those living in the developing world, savings and wealth accumulation behaviors matter most for long term happiness. Also, a primary question of the PWB lab is "Can money make us happy if we spend it on the right purchases?" Their past work has shown that life experiences lead to longer-term satisfaction, likely because purchased experiences provide memory capital.

He has authored more than 30 scholarly publications in a number of leading academic journals, including Psychological Bulletin, and his research has been covered in media outlets such as the Time magazine, the New York Times, PBS (this emotional life), Forbes, The Economist, The Wall Street Journal, Fast Company,,,,, and he has appeared on National Public Radio, Radio New Zealand, and ABC 7 News.

He has written extensively on happiness, psychological needs satisfaction, experiential consumption, time perspectives, and money management. For example, his research has demonstrated that: (a) when people are in poverty the relation between their net-worth and SWB is stronger than when they are in affluence (Howell, Howell, & Schwabe, 2006; Howell & Howell, 2008) and (b) the relation between net-worth and life satisfaction is mediated by both financial security and psychological need satisfaction (Howell, Kurai, & Tam, 2013).

Concerning consumption, he has determined that people are happier from buying life experiences rather than tangible goods because experiences foster people's feelings of relatedness (Howell & Hill, 2009), (a) experiential consumers report increased well-being as well as greater psychological need satisfaction (Howell, Pchelin, & Iyer, 2012), (b) materialistic people do not enjoy the experiential advantage because their experiential purchases do not meet their need for identity expression (Zhang, Howell, Caprariello, & Guevarra, 2014), (c) while purely experiential purchases increase feelings of relatedness, experiential products help people fulfill their need for competence (Guevarra & Howell, 2014), and (d) one barrier to experiential consumption is that people choose material items instead of life experiences when they seek to maximize the economic value of what they buy (Pchelin & Howell, 2014).


This study is being conducted by Dr. Mark D. Juszczak, Adjunct Professor of Communications at St Johns University in New York City. The purpose of this context validation study is, as the name implies, to validate the business context of B.A.N.K.'s™ primary value proposition. That proposition is simple: B.A.N.K.™ is intended to improve the performance of salespeople by having those salespeople alter their sales communications as a function of their client's belonging to one of four psychological profiles.

The Context Validation Study (CVS) is a meta-study. It is a study of existing scientific literature (also known as a literature review) that seeks to determine the following:

  1. Under what conditions variance in sales communications discourse alone is most likely to achieve a change in sales conversion numbers
  2. The general properties of those conditions
  3. Evidence that confirms that variance through other existing, completed studies, in sales and communications discourse
  4. If a framework exists (such as perceptual variability, or some other similar tool) that allows for selection of either industry or interaction types that are the most likely to benefit from B.A.N.K.™ varied sales communication discourse - independent of other variables.


Professor Juszczak holds a Doctorate of Education from Columbia University with a specialization in Organizational Psychology/ Innovation Theory. Professor Juszczak is currently an Adjunct Professor of Communications at St Johns University in New York City and is currently a permanent Visiting Professor at MGU – A Specialized Education College in Warsaw, Poland.

Dr. Juszczak is the author of numerous academic articles on subjects related to education, psychology and communications and is a featured author in recently published textbook on advances in research in adult education. He has been quoted in the New York Times and Forbes (Europe) as an expert on education and innovation.

Dr. Juszczak has provided consulting services and senior-level training in the area of organizational psychology to the following government institutions: the Federal Reserve B.A.N.K. of the United States, the Ministry of Finance in Poland, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs in the State of Kuwait, the Ministry of Higher Education in Poland, the Kuwaiti Institute for Scientific Research, the Kuwaiti Port Authority and the Ministry of Finance in the State of Kuwait. He has also provided consulting services and senior-level training in the areas of organizational psychology to Fortune 500 companies and has worked globally to advance human development. He has been a consultant, lecturer and invited speaker to numerous conferences and universities, including, most recently, MIT-Portugal, AON (The Elite Military Academy of Poland's Ministry of Defense), APS, GUST University in Kuwait, Teachers College (Columbia University), CPS at Boston University/ MIT.